Resolution No. 88/CP dated December 31, 1996 of the Government on the program for the development of materials science and technology in Vietnam till the year 2010
SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF VIET NAM
Independence - Freedom - Happiness
Ha Noi ,December 31, 1996
OF THE GOVERNMENT ON THE PROGRAM FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF MATERIALS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN VIETNAM TILL THE YEAR 2010
Materials science and technology constitute a group of scientific branches for researching on the composition, structure and processing of materials to create materials with necessary technical properties and manufacture them on the industrial scale.
The advanced technologies used in the materials industry plays an important and indispensable role in economic development, constituting a basis for the development of many new branches and new products, creating conditions for the maximum exploitation of resources to develop production, raise the people's living standard and accelerate national industrialization and modernization.
This Resolution reviews the current situation of the materials industry of Vietnam, set forth the objectives, orientation and contents for the development of materials science and technology till the year 2010 as well as major policies and solutions to achieve the set objectives.
I. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE MATERIALS INDUSTRY IN VIETNAM
1. To date, Vietnam has developed its materials industry mainly on the basis of its own natural resources and minerals which are diversified but difficult to exploit and process. Generally speaking, the mines are of medium or small size, with low mineral contents and exploitable reserves and the sorting technologies are obsolete.
2. Since the early 1960s in the North and 1975 in the whole country, the Government has attached importance to the development of the country's industry, having established a number of materials sectors, materials industrial zones and groups, including several large and important new projects, and transformed a number of infrastructure projects, thus creating the initial material-technical basis for national industrialization.
Among Vietnams materials industries, the steel industry was set up at a relatively early date. However, over the past 20 years and more, the steel production technology has remained backward due to lack of conditions for equipment renewal. Over recent years, only a few new steel rolling mills have been constructed, increasing total steel output from 100,000 tons in 1990 to 1,000,000 tons in 1995, most of which are construction steel.
The construction materials industry has also obtained certain results. There are now 5 large cement factories throughout the country: Hai Phong, Bim Son, Hoang Thach, Ha Tien 1 and Ha Tien 2. The total output of the above said factories is 4.6 million tons/year, while smaller cement plants produce a combined 2 million tons/year. Factories built in recent years are relatively modern in production technology.
No considerable investments have been made in the ceramic, porcelain and glass manufacturing industries where small production scale and obsolete technology still prevail, hence low output and poor quality of products. So far, only the Dap Cau Glass Factory can produce a relatively large quantity of construction glass averaging around 2,000 tons/year.
The plastic and paint industries have initially taken shape in recent years. Other common materials are all manufactured with obsolete or hand-operated equipment and machinery and on a small scale.
On the whole, the materials industry of Vietnam is limited in capacity, incapable of investing in development on its own, its production lines are obsolete and are not renovated, resulting in low productivity and poor quality of products which cannot meet the domestic demand. Many important products still have to be imported.
3. The Party and Government have
Yet, the poor and backward equipment for research institutions, little and even-handed investment in technological research and development and the lack of a mechanism to combine research and production are preventing the scientific and technical personnel from contributing to the development of the materials industry.
4. Science and technology have now become important factors in national development. This requires us to increase the investment, to speedily and substantially renovate the materials industry in order to create the impetus for the development of the entire national economy.
The international situation in the coming years shall witness profound changes beneficial to the development of Vietnams materials industry. At the same time it will pose new challenges, which require that we consider and select proper steps and forms so as to be able to get out of the danger of lagging behind other countries in the region.
All these factors require Vietnam to intensify the development of the materials industry according to its own strategy.
II. ORIENTATION AND OBJECTIVES OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY IN VIETNAM TILL THE YEAR 2010
1- Objectives of the development of the materials technology
a) From now to the year 2000, besides meeting most of the demands for common materials manufactured from domestic resources, Vietnam has to take a number of sectors of the materials industry to the level of the developed countries in the region, and by the year 2010, a number of sectors to the medium advanced level of the world.
b) Building Vietnams materials industry on a firm basis and with a synchronous structure capable of meeting the requirement of producing materials for the key industries of the national economy such as energy, infrastructure construction, machine building, electronics, etc., and capable of turning out materials with new technical properties and new materials to meet the diversified demands of various economic branches.
c) Establishing a system of research and development institutions in the field of materials technologies, which are capable of conducting high-level research and creating new technologies and new materials in service of the national economy.
2- Orientation for the development of the materials technology
a) Attaching importance to the study, absorbing and receiving the transfer of appropriate and advanced materials technologies so as to develop a sustainable materials industry, narrow the technological gap between Vietnam and other countries. At the same time, raising the intrinsic scientific and technological capability in order to receive, adapt and modify the imported technologies to suit to practical conditions and requirements of production, in order to exploit such technologies and raise the efficiency of their utilization.
b) Paying attention to the development of technologies that use natural resources and minerals available in the country, conducting research on and development of advanced technologies in the manufacture of traditional materials and new materials.
c) Making in depth investment, improving the existing technologies to raise the production capacity and quality of products, focusing on the processes that determine the technical properties of materials and competitiveness of products.
d) Developing materials industries in areas where favorable conditions exist. Attaching importance to developing small and medium-scale establishments so as to fully exploit the potentials and strengths of each region and minimize the imbalance in transportation. Paying attention to the guiding principle of "feeding long-term projects with short-term ones", combining the traditional technologies with the selected high technologies, and at the same time, building a number of large-scale projects which are necessary and efficient.
e) Developing new and high technologies must be conducted on the principle of focusing on the already selected priorities. The State shall support the research on and development of new and high technologies and encourage the materials industries to apply them.
III. CONTENTS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY IN VIETNAM TILL THE YEAR 2010
Depending on our countrys natural resources and minerals potential, the research and development institutions capabilities in materials science and technology, the countrys demands for materials at present and in the near future, and on the basis of the set objectives and orientation, efforts should be concentrated on the realization of the following major contents of the Program for the Development of Materials Science and Technology till the Year 2010:
a) Metal materials:
The metal materials manufacturing industry is an important sector having a decisive impact on the cause of national industrialization and modernization as well as on national defense of security. Vietnam has favorable conditions for effectively developing the metallurgical industry, such as diversified mineral resources, a big hydro-electric power potential, advantageous geographical location and an abundant labor force. In building the metallurgical industry of Vietnam, importance should be attached to the development of the following technologies:
1. Metallurgical technologies suitable for the production of steel and basic metal materials of various kinds, so as to meet the essential demands of the economy and export. Special attention should be paid to non-coke metallurgical technologies.
2. The metallurgical technology for the production of high-quality steel, steel alloy and other alloys for machine building, the chemicals, cement and petroleum technologies and the requirements of national defense, advanced molding technologies and the corresponding technologies for processing, treatment, analysis and testing.
3. The technology for powder metallurgy, materials for soldering and spray-coating technologies, technology for manufacturing composite metal materials.
4. The technology for the processing of copper and aluminum and their alloys.
5. The technology for mineral prospection and exploration and the technology for general treatment of minerals.
6. The technology for producing ferro-alloys and high-quality metal oxides from Vietnams mineral resources.
7. The technology for producing pure and super-pure metals, precious and rare metals, the technology for manufacturing advanced technical materials from rare earths.
8. The technology for producing special alloys for use in electricity, electronics and other industries.
b) Construction materials
Infrastructure building requires a large supply of cement. Vietnam has also great potentials of raw materials, fuel and favorable conditions for developing this industry:
1. The cement manufacture technology: To select the "dry" method with highly-automatic advanced technology; to upgrade and renew the technology for cement production by the "wet" method, and build new factories using advanced technologies.
2. Types of cement: Besides the common type of Portland cement, its necessary to produce cement of special types such as durable sulfate cement for use in the sea environment, cement for use in oil wells, high-intensity cement, Portland-Puzzolan cement, ... for use in special structures.
c) Ceramic, porcelain and glass materials
Ceramics, porcelain and glass are materials used for producing ordinary and technical items of great demand. Vietnam has materials resources with large deposits and good quality in all regions of the country. Even the enterprises with no big investment capital can create jobs for the local labor force. To ensure the competitiveness of domestic products and boost the export, the following advanced technologies should be applied:
1. In the field of ceramic and porcelain materials, attention should be paid to the development of technology for producing materials with high-level technical properties as substitutes for some kinds of steel and alloys, technology for producing art ceramics and porcelains for export, technology for producing fire-resistant materials with quantity and quality that satisfy most of the need of the metallurgical, glass and cement industries, technology for manufacturing porous ceramics and catalytic layers, insulation porcelain for use in electric equipment and high-voltage transmission lines, ceramic materials used in the treatment of environmental pollution.
2. In the field of glass materials, attention should be paid to the development of technology for producing construction glass, medical glass, glass for scientific laboratories, glass for the lighting industry, high-quality glass for decoration, electricity-insulating glass, heat-insulating fiber glass, fiber glass for composite materials and optical fiber glass.
d) Polymer materials
Vietnam has abundant natural resources to supply raw materials to the polymer industry: petroleum, natural rubber, vegetal resins and oils. Polymer materials are used not only for daily life, but also for the manufacture of indispensable parts of industrial equipment, transport means, as well as substitutes for ordinary materials such as iron, steel, concrete, etc. Attention should be paid to the following polymer technologies:
1. The technology for the manufacture of composite materials from flexible and inflexible heated polymers reinforced with glass fiber, basalt fiber and carbon fiber and for denaturing wood with polymer substances.
2. The technology for the manufacture of high-grade products and composite materials from natural rubber, vegetal resins and oils.
3. The technology for the manufacture of various types of paint and other anti-corrosion composite materials for protecting metals in strongly corrosive environments such as sea water, hot and humid environment, equipment used in the chemicals industry, etc.
4. The technology for the manufacture of polymer composite materials for electric and electronic purposes in harsh environmental conditions.
5. The technology for the manufacture of special polymer membranes, biological polymers, polymers used for biological dissolution, polymers used for treatment of environmental pollution and other special polymers.
e) Protection of materials
In the tropical climatic conditions of Vietnam, especially in the coastal areas and the sea environment, the research and application of methods of protecting materials, especially metal materials, is a content of paramount Efforts should be concentrated on the research and development of the following technologies:
1. The technology for protecting sea constructions by electrochemical methods;
2. The technology for protecting materials with coating layers (plating, spray-coating, painting and composite materials, etc.);
3. The technology for protecting materials with inhibitors.
f) Electronic materials
The electronic industry is a high-tech industry playing an important role in the modernization of the national economy and should be given priority for development by selecting several kinds of materials, conducting research and absorbing advanced technologies of foreign countries and producing materials and components for the assembly of equipment or for export. Since many regional countries have successfully developed their electronic industries, Vietnam should concentrate on the development of the following technologies:
1. The technology for the manufacture of high-quality ferrite, rare earth magnet, amorphous and micro-crystal materials.
2. The technology for the manufacture of sensor materials and component (semi-conductor, super-conductor, new electricity conducting substances, piezoelectric ceramics) used in measuring equipment, automation equipment, for biological and medical purposes.
3. The technology for the manufacture of optoelectronic and photonic materials and components: light-absorbing semi-conductive materials and components, light-emitting semi-conductive materials and components, semi-conductive laser, non-linear optic materials, optic conductor, amplified optic conductor, laser disc, opto-electric materials, etc.
4. The technology for the manufacture of energy admitting and converting materials used as power sources of electronic equipment.
IV. MAJOR POLICIES AND MEASURES TO BOOST THE DEVELOPMENT OF MATERIALS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
1. Drawing up plans for the development of materials science and technology on the national scale
The Ministries, branches and localities should draw up plans for exploiting their existing advantages and potentials, work out specific programs, projects, aiming to develop materials science and technology, renew the modes of materials production and use. There shall also be plans for researching and using new materials and applying technologies, replacing obsolete and backward technologies, renovating and upgrading the existing technologies in order to raise productivity and technical properties of materials and products. Measures should be taken to save materials from their exploitation and processing to their use.
The Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment shall direct and support other ministries and localities in the efficient execution of their plans.
2. Building up the materials science and technology potential
National Center for Natural Sciences and Technologies, of ministries and enterprises, laboratories and research centers of various universities.
Increasing investment in building material bases, renovating research and laboratory equipment to raise the research capability, meet the requirement of the development of the materials industry.
3. Stepping up research and development
Stepping up the materials science and technology research in universities, research institutes,
The State encourages all enterprises to set up scientific-technological research departments to conduct research and development, raise the level of production technology and the competitiveness of products.
The research and development agencies of ministries, branches and universities shall closely coordinate with research and development units of enterprises in organizing scientific research, production of new materials and application of new technologies.
Encouraging investors to import advanced materials-manufacture technologies into Vietnam and transferring technologies among domestic production establishments.
4. Organizing personnel training
Improving the professional level of personnel engaged in materials science and technology in various forms.
territory of Vietnam and issuing diplomas or certificates that correspond to those of developed countries in the world. Sending people abroad for training in some branches where Vietnam still
5. Promoting international cooperation
Encouraging domestic research, production and business establishments to organize study tours to foreign countries, cooperate in research, employing experts and cooperating with foreign countries in the transfer of materials technologies.
Encouraging domestic and foreign enterprises to invest or jointly contribute capital to invest in the fields of prioritized materials in high-tech zones and export processing zones.
6. Capital support and mobilization
The State shall invest in the research and development of the scientific of a number of key materials sciences and technologies.
The State shall also draw up policies and preferential measures to mobilize capital sources from enterprises, economic sectors, production organizations, attract foreign investment capital and support the training, scientific research and application of materials technologies partly with fund from the State budget and international aid, especially from ODA programs.
V. ORGANIZATION OF IMPLEMENTATION
Due to the importance of the materials science and technology for the national economy in the period of national industrialization and modernization, the Government has decided to establish the National Economic-Technical Program for Materials Science and Technology with a view to promoting the research and application of advanced and modern materials technologies to the production branches at both central and local levels. The management of the Program shall be undertaken by a managing board. The Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment shall have to elaborate the Government Decision on the establishment of the program managing board together with its functions and tasks and submit it to the Prime Minister for approval.
The responsibilities of the ministries, branches and localities for organizing the implementation are assigned as follows:
- The Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment shall, within its State management function, lay down regulations and policies to facilitate the implementation of the Program.
- The Ministry of Planning and Investment shall have to supply resources for the implementation of the National Program's tasks set in annual and five-year plans.
- The Ministry of Finance shall provide funds for ministries, branches and localities performing tasks of the National Program already approved by the Prime Minister, propose appropriate financial policies regarding taxation, development funds... to facilitate the implementation of the Program.
- The National Center for Natural Sciences and Technologies, the Ministry of Education and Training, universities and research institutes of the ministries and branches shall enhance cooperation with production establishments in research and experimentation and personnel training, propose orientations for the development of materials technologies.
- The ministries, branches and localities shall elaborate their own master plans, five-year plans and annual plans to be submitted by the Managing Board of the National Program to the Government for their incorporation into the general plan of the State; periodically report to the Managing Board of the National Program on the implementation of their assigned tasks; the Managing Board of the Program shall base itself on such reports to report to the Prime Minister.
The Ministers, the Heads of the ministerial-level agencies, the Heads of the agencies attached to the Government, the Presidents of the People's Committees of the provinces and cities directly under the Central Government shall have to implement this Resolution.
ON BEHALF OF THE GOVERNMENT
FOR THE PRIME MINISTER
DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER
Phan Van Khai