1. Understanding Trade Secret Protection in Vietnam

In today's knowledge-driven economy, innovation is the lifeblood of success. For many businesses in Vietnam, the secret sauce lies in their trade secrets – unique formulas, processes, or information that grant them a vital edge over competitors. However, unlike patents with a defined lifespan, trade secrets are only protected as long as they remain confidential. So, what happens if someone misappropriates your trade secret in Vietnam?

The good news is that Vietnam's Intellectual Property Law (Law No. 50/2005/QH11, amended 2009, 2019, 2022) recognizes and protects trade secrets. This legal framework provides a shield against unauthorized disclosure or use of your confidential information. However not all confidential information qualifies for legal protection. To be considered a trade secret under Vietnamese law, your information must meet three key criteria:

  • Secrecy: The information must not be generally known or readily ascertainable by others in the relevant field. This means it's not something a competitor could easily discover through independent research or by reverse engineering your product.
  • Commercial Value: The information must have demonstrable commercial value because it is secret. This value can stem from increased profits, a competitive advantage in the marketplace, or cost savings due to the unique process.
  • Reasonable Efforts to Maintain Secrecy: You, the rightful owner, must have taken reasonable steps to safeguard the secrecy of the information. This could involve implementing Non-Disclosure Agreements (NDAs) with employees and contractors, restricting access to sensitive information, and storing confidential documents securely.

Fulfilling these criteria establishes your ownership of the trade secret and strengthens your legal position in case of misappropriation. By understanding these requirements, you can take proactive steps to protect your confidential information and ensure it remains your competitive advantage.


2. Gathering Evidence: Building a Strong Case

Are you suspect your trade secret has been misappropriated in Vietnam? Before taking legal action, building a strong case with solid evidence is crucial. Think of it as constructing a formidable defense – the more compelling the evidence, the better your chances of successfully protecting your intellectual property. Here's what you need to gather:

  • Documentation: Proof of Ownership
    • Invention Records: Maintain meticulous records of the creation of your trade secret. This could include dated lab notebooks, design specifications, or internal documents outlining the development process. Time-stamped evidence establishes your ownership and demonstrates the secrecy of the information at the time of creation.
    • Patent Applications (if applicable): If you've filed a patent application for your trade secret (even if not granted), it can serve as evidence of ownership and the information's secrecy at the time of filing.
  • Non-Disclosure Agreements (NDAs):
    • Copies of signed NDAs with any individuals who had access to your trade secret, including employees, contractors, or potential partners who might have been exposed to confidential information during discussions. NDAs solidify your efforts to maintain secrecy and potentially identify the source of the leak.
  • Evidence of Misappropriation:
    • Gather any evidence that demonstrates the infringing party is using your trade secret. This can be:
      • Emails or communications: Emails containing discussions about your trade secret with the infringing party, or internal communications within their company that reveal knowledge of your confidential information.
      • Marketing materials or product features: Brochures, advertisements, or product samples from the infringing party that embody elements or functionalities derived from your trade secret.
      • Expert witness testimony: In complex cases, expert testimony from qualified professionals can analyze technical aspects and confirm if the infringing product or process utilizes your trade secret.

Building a Strong Case Takes Time and Effort

Gathering evidence can be a meticulous process. It might involve internal investigations, reviewing communication records, and potentially acquiring evidence from external sources. While time-consuming, this investment is crucial for building a strong case that can convince a court or administrative body of the misappropriation.

Remember: The more comprehensive your evidence collection, the stronger your legal position. This not only increases your chances of a favorable outcome but also deters potential infringers from misusing your valuable trade secrets.


If you've gathered solid evidence that your trade secret has been misappropriated in Vietnam, the legal system offers several avenues to pursue justice and protect your competitive edge. Here's an overview of your options:

1. Civil Lawsuit:

This is the most common course of action for trade secret infringement. You can file a lawsuit in a Vietnamese court seeking various remedies, including:

  • Injunction: A court order to prevent the infringing party from further using or disclosing your trade secret. This immediate action can halt ongoing damages and prevent further exploitation of your confidential information.
  • Damages: Compensation for the financial losses you demonstrably suffered due to the misappropriation. This could include lost profits, marketing costs incurred due to a compromised competitive advantage or research and development expenses wasted due to the leak.
  • Account of Profits: A court order requiring the infringing party to disclose and surrender any profits they gained by using your trade secret. This recovers ill-gotten gains and discourages future infringement.

2. Administrative Procedures:

In some cases, you might be able to pursue administrative procedures through the National Office of Intellectual Property of Vietnam (NOIP). This route can offer a faster resolution compared to a civil lawsuit. However, the remedies available through the NOIP might be limited. They may only involve cease-and-desist orders or administrative fines, which might not fully compensate you for the financial losses incurred.

Choosing the Right Path:

The best legal option for your case depends on several factors:

  • The severity of the Infringement: For a serious misappropriation causing significant financial losses, a civil lawsuit with the potential for substantial damages might be the best choice.
  • Time Constraints: If you need a swift resolution to halt ongoing damage, administrative procedures might be a faster option, although the remedies might be less comprehensive.
  • Cost Considerations: Civil lawsuits can be expensive, involving court fees, lawyer fees, and potential expert witness costs. Weigh the potential benefits against the financial investment required.

Consulting a Lawyer is Essential

The complexities of Vietnamese intellectual property law and the specific circumstances of your case make consulting with a qualified intellectual property lawyer in Vietnam crucial. They can:

  • Advise you on the most suitable legal course of action based on your evidence and desired outcome.
  • Navigate the legalities of the Vietnamese legal system and represent you in court or during administrative proceedings.
  • Help you calculate potential damages and build a strong case to maximize your chances of success.

By understanding your legal options and seeking professional legal guidance, you can effectively protect your trade secrets and ensure your competitive advantage remains secure.


Unearthing evidence of trade secret misappropriation in Vietnam can be a frustrating and potentially damaging experience. While the legal system offers avenues for recourse, taking legal action requires careful consideration. Here are some key factors to weigh before embarking on a legal battle:

  • Cost and Time Commitment: Litigation, whether through a civil lawsuit or administrative procedures, can be a time-consuming and expensive process. Court fees, lawyer fees, and potential expert witness costs can quickly accumulate. Carefully assess the potential financial investment required against the value of your trade secret and the expected damages from the misappropriation. Consider if the financial gains from a successful lawsuit outweigh the costs involved.
  • Strength of Your Case: A robust case hinges on the evidence you've gathered. Evaluate the strength of your proof of ownership, the clarity of your trade secret definition, and the evidence demonstrating misappropriation by the infringing party. A weak case with insufficient evidence can lead to a disappointing outcome and wasted resources. Consulting with your lawyer can help you assess the viability of your case and determine the likelihood of success.
  • Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR): Consider exploring Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) options like mediation or arbitration. These methods offer a potentially faster and less expensive way to resolve the dispute compared to litigation. ADR can involve a neutral third party facilitating communication and negotiation between you and the infringing party, potentially leading to a mutually agreeable settlement.
  • Publicity and Potential Damage: Engaging in legal action can attract unwanted publicity, especially if the trade secret involves sensitive information. Weigh the potential benefits of a successful lawsuit against the possible reputational damage that might arise during the legal proceedings.

Making an Informed Decision

The decision to pursue legal action requires a strategic evaluation of the situation. Consult with your intellectual property lawyer to discuss the legal merits of your case, the available legal options, and the associated costs and timelines. By carefully considering these factors, you can make an informed decision that maximizes your chances of successfully protecting your trade secret and safeguarding your competitive edge.

Remember, sometimes the most effective solution might not involve a courtroom battle. Exploring ADR options and seeking professional legal guidance can empower you to navigate this challenging situation and make the best choice for your business.


The intricate legalities surrounding trade secret infringement in Vietnam can be daunting, especially when faced with a potential misappropriation. While the legal options outlined previously offer avenues for recourse, navigating the complexities of Vietnamese intellectual property law requires the expertise of a qualified lawyer. Here's why seeking legal counsel is crucial for protecting your trade secrets:

  • Strategic Guidance: An experienced intellectual property lawyer can analyze the specifics of your case and advise you on the most effective course of action. They can assess the strength of your evidence, evaluate the potential legal options (civil lawsuit, administrative procedures, or ADR), and recommend the approach most likely to achieve a successful outcome.
  • Legal Expertise: The Vietnamese legal system has its own nuances and procedures. A lawyer with a deep understanding of intellectual property law in Vietnam can ensure you comply with all legal requirements, navigate the court system effectively, and present your case persuasively.
  • Building a Strong Case: Your lawyer can assist in gathering and organizing evidence, drafting legal documents, and potentially acquiring expert witness testimony to strengthen your case. Their expertise can significantly increase your chances of a favorable outcome in court or during administrative proceedings.
  • Negotiation and Settlement: In some cases, legal counsel can facilitate communication with the infringing party and explore settlement options. This can potentially lead to a faster resolution and avoid the time and expense of a prolonged legal battle.
  • Protecting Your Interests: Throughout the legal process, your lawyer will be your advocate, ensuring your rights and interests are protected. They will represent you in court or during administrative proceedings, negotiate on your behalf, and ensure your voice is heard.

Finding the Right Lawyer:

When seeking legal counsel, look for a lawyer with experience specializing in intellectual property law in Vietnam. They should have a proven track record of handling trade secret infringement cases and possess a strong understanding of the relevant legal framework.

Building a Strong Lawyer-Client Relationship

Open communication and a collaborative approach are key to a successful lawyer-client relationship. Provide your lawyer with all the details of your case, including the nature of your trade secret, the evidence you've gathered, and the desired outcome. The more information you share, the better equipped your lawyer will be to advocate for your rights and protect your valuable intellectual property.


Trade secret infringement can be a significant threat, but by seeking legal counsel from a qualified intellectual property lawyer in Vietnam, you gain a powerful ally. Their expertise, strategic guidance, and representation can make a significant difference in protecting your trade secrets and securing a successful outcome. Remember, acting promptly and seeking professional legal advice is crucial for safeguarding your competitive edge and ensuring the continued success of your business in Vietnam.


6. Conclusion

Trade secrets are the lifeblood of innovation, and Vietnam's legal framework offers protection for these valuable assets. However, misappropriation can pose a significant threat. By understanding the criteria for trade secret protection, meticulously gathering evidence, and carefully considering your legal options, you can take proactive steps to safeguard your confidential information.

Remember, the decision to pursue legal action requires a strategic evaluation. Consulting with a qualified intellectual property lawyer in Vietnam is crucial for navigating the legalities, maximizing your chances of success, and ultimately, protecting your competitive advantage. Don't hesitate to seek legal counsel – their expertise can be your shield against misappropriation and empower you to enforce your rights effectively.

By taking these steps, you can ensure your innovative ideas remain your secret weapon, allowing you to disrupt the market, achieve long-term success, and solidify your position in the Vietnamese business landscape.

If you need further explanation on this subject, please don't hesitate to contact us through email at lienhe@luatminhkhue.vn or phone number: +84986 386 648. Lawyer To Thi Phuong Dzung.