SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF VIET NAM Independence - Freedom – Happiness
No. 362-TTg
Hanoi ,May30, 1996
Pursuant to the Law on Organization of the Government of September 30, 1992;
At the proposal of the Minister of Science, Technology and Environment in Exposition No.744/KHTC of April 12, 1996,
Article 1.- To ratify the orientation, objectives and tasks of scientific and technological activities in the 5-year period of 1996-2000 issued together with this Decision.
Article 2.- The Ministries, the General Departments, the People�s Committees of the provinces and cities directly under the Central Government shall specify the above-said scientific and technological tasks in the five-year and annual plans of the Ministries, General Departments, provinces and cities; organize, assign and coordinate the performing forces.
Article 3.- The Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment shall guide the Ministries, General Departments, and provinces and cities directly under the Central Government in the performance of the above-said tasks in the spirit of Decision No.419-TTg of July 21, 1995 of the Prime Minister, constantly direct, inspect, supervise and report to the Prime Minister the situation on the performance of the scientific and technological tasks assigned to the Ministries, General Departments, provinces and cities directly under the Central Government.
Article 4.- This Decision takes effect from the date of its signing.
Article 5.- The Ministers, the Heads of the ministerial-level agencies, the Heads of the agencies attached to the Government, the Presidents of the People’s Committees of the provinces and cities directly under the Central Government, the Directors of the National Scientific Centers, the Directors of the National Universities, and the concerned agencies shall have to implement this Decision.



Vo Van Kiet

(Issued together with Decision No.362-TTg of May 30, 1996 of the Prime Minister)
- Stepping up the research in social sciences and humanities in service of the industrialization and modernization of the country and fostering people of a new type and building a new culture imbued with the national identity;
- Renovating technology in the key production branches;
- Developing high technologies (information technology, biological technology, materials technology and automation);
- Synchronously applying scientific and technological advances in order to promote the development of the rural and mountainous areas;
- Rationally utilizing natural resources, protecting the environment, surveying and studying the sea;
- Building and developing the scientific and technological potentials;
- Raising the quality of products;
- Stepping up scientific research and technological development in the field of national defense and security.
1- Developing the intrinsic scientific and technological capabilities as an important factor to the promotion of the production development in order to:
- Provide firm scientific grounds for the orientations in national development, and in the elaboration of the policies of the Party and State.
- Absorb new scientific and technological achievements of the world, choose and master the technologies transferred into Vietnam.
- Build an adequate and strong scientific and technological potential in a number of key sectors, such as electronic and informatic industry, biological technology, materials technology, manufacturing mechanics and automation, agriculture, medicine...
2- Intensifying technological renovation in the production branches, with special attention paid to technological quality, creating a new step of technological development. Attaching importance to the development of a number of hi-tech industries such as: electronics, informatics, telecommuni-cations, new materials, biological that science and technology can actually contribute an important part to accelerating the economic growth rate and strengthening national defense and security.
To clearly define Vietnam�s current path to socialism. To interpret issues of the time and propose a scientific basis and thesis for the formulation of the lines and policies of the Party and State.
Research shall be focused on the following issues:
1- Interpretation of the basic theoretical matters of Marxism-Leninism and Ho Chi Minh Thought.
2- Research into theoretical issues of development in the new period:
+ Clarifying the nature of the multi-sector commodity economy and its operational mechanism in the process of development;
+ Working out plans for the process of industrialization and modernization;
+ Defining the system of social policies during the stage of industrialization and modernization.
3- The elaboration of the strategic objectives of the comprehensive development of Vietnamese beings, and the solutions in each domain to serve these objectives. The building of Vietnamese beings should be considered the pivotal task in creating a human resource determining the success of the industrialization and modernization process and the development of education and training.
4- The determination of solutions to the social organization and management according to the requirement for a comprehensive development and ensuring a civilized and equitable society; building of a civilized culture characterized by the national identity and modernity in its development process.
5- The research into and forecast of the world�s development trends and Vietnam�s external relations with countries in the region and the world.
6- The research, forecast and proposals on the national defense and security strategy.
To conduct research into a number of the spear-head theoretical matters and selective application of scientific advances in order to approach the world�s level in some domains:
1- On mathematics, cybernetics and calculus: The research shall be focused on the basic mathematical branches (the optimum theory, the theory of probability and the mathematical statistics, the mathematical analysis, a number of selective matters in the algebra, the numerology and topographical geometry); the application of the world�s achievements in informatics (artificial intelligence, the fundamentals of the software technology...) as a basis for the development of informatics, systematics and cybernetics.
2- On physics: The focus shall be on physics of solid matters, optics and spectrum, laser physics, nuclear physics and theoretical physics.
3- On mechanics: concentrating on mechanics of new materials, mechanics of construction structures on sea and islands, modern methods in mechanical practice; kinetics of systems, hydro-dynamics and numerical method in mechanics.
4- On chemistry: concentrating on synthetic methods and mechanism of organic reactions, catalysis and assimilation, analytical chemistry in service of the petrochemical industry.
5- On biology: Researches shall be focused on the modern classification methods, changes in the tropical biological groups, ecological and physiological identity, typical tropical ecosystems, cell technique, genetic technology, microbiological technology, biology on sea, coastal areas and seashore strand.
6- On the sciences of the earth:
+ Geology: concentrating on research into geological catastrophes such as severance structures of the Red River sphere; typical fossils of the substantial strata in the Paleozoic of the Northern and Central Vietnam; geological structure and the characteristics of geological kinetics in Vietnam and surrounding areas.
+ Global physics: physical fields in Vietnam's territory in service of the environmental evaluation and forecast of natural calamities.
+ Geography: conducting survey and overall evaluation of Vietnam's geographic and territorial conditions in service of territorial organization; conducting research into climatic changes and their impacts on economic and environmental activities in Vietnam; evaluating and forecasting the natural and environmental catastrophes in the key mountainous areas in Northern Vietnam.
+ Sea and continental shelf research (Oceanography): establishing a data base on the sea and continental shelf in service of planning and exploitation of the sea and continental shelf projects and works.
+ Space research and exploitation.
Concentrating on the research into and selection of efficient imported technologies, proceeding straight to the modernization of necessary technologies and technological processes; firmly grasping the imported technologies, applying and renovating them in a way suitable to the conditions of Vietnam. Researching, selecting and transferring proper technologies to the rural and mountainous areas, then proceeding to the creation of technologies typical of Vietnam.
1- In service of agricultural and rural development.
Effectively protecting and making full use of the existing arable land, developing and using areas which have great potentials but remain untapped such as the hilly areas, pasture land, water surface and shallow water, in order to raise the output and labor productivity, rationally using and bringing into play the potentials of the labor force, land and natural resources, promoting various production lines and crafts in the rural areas, stepping up the restructuring of the rural economy in the direction of industrialization. Scientific and technological research must be concentrated on:
a) Mastering the technology of producing hybrids varieties of rice and corn, developing new rice strains which can yield an average of more than 10 tons/ha/crop, creating new strains resistant to harmful insects and diseases and adaptable to difficult ecological conditions, thus contributing to raising the total food output to 30-32 million tons/year by the year 2000.
b) Developing the processing and preserving technologies, minimizing the post-harvest losses, increasing the percentage of processed farm products.
c) Gradually mechanizing the cultivation, focusing on the mechanization of cultivation, harvesting and processing, and husbandry.
d) Experimentally planting forest trees of high timber yield of over 20 cubic meters/ha/year to be used as materials for the paper and wood industries. Research on forest protection policy.
e) Surveying and researching the sea resources and environment to serve as scientific basis for fishery development; renovating the technology in the field of aquatic product preservation and processing. Researching the application of biological technology in cross-breeding and selecting aquatic species of high economic value, producing feeds and controlling diseases of aquacultural animals.
f) Designing a model of transfer of technology and technical advances suitable to the rural and mountain conditions. Researching the population distribution in the rural area, planning population clusters and townships, building model of ecology-friendly villages, the supply of clean water, environmental hygiene in rural areas and the building of a civilized countryside.
2- Industry:
a) Manufacturing mechanics: mastering basic advanced technologies such as foundry technology, flexible deformation technology, soldering technology, cast-involved processing technology, thermo-metallurgical technology, surface-processing technology, precision processing technology (laser technology). Researching the application of new technologies in metallurgical and chemical industry.
Stepping up the application of CAD/CAM technology in designing and manufacturing heavy mechanical equipment for blast-furnace and reverter-furnace in cement production; manufacturing water pumps with capability of up to 36,000 cubic meters/hour for water works; manufacturing complete equipment for the processing of agricultural, forestry or sea products; renovating technology and applying the latest technologies to the production of consumer goods and export goods, raising the quality of products.
b) The key task of mechanical-electronic science and technology is to conduct research into and apply basic technologies relating to the design, the manufacture and test the main parts of some machines for special use, and new generation of electronic components on the basis of imported components.
c) Raising the quality of foundry technology in order to reduce the percentage of molding errors to 15%, and the rate of energy consumption to 60-70% of the current rate; extensively applying advanced technologies in cutting, soldering, spraying, coating and mold making.
d) Undertaking technological renovation in key industries through the application of modern science and technology, especially microelectronic technology and automatic instruments. Reorganizating domestic production of a large quantity of spare parts and a number of equipment of common use.
e) Oil-gas and petrochemical industry: Concentrating on the research into and application of basic technologies to serve the petrochemical industry, project structure and safety against environmental pollution.
3- High technologies:
a) Electronics - Informatics - Telecommunications:
Creating a technological and scientific foundations for the establishment of a national computer network, which shall integrate into the international superhighway of information and be widely used in various branches of the national economy. Building industrial foundations for the information technology, especially software technology, and proceeding to acquire a telecommunications satellite of Vietnam itself.
- Researching the information technology in the field of natural voice processing, and matters relating to artificial intelligence, multimedia, geographical information system (GIS)...
- Mastering the network technology (data transmission, multilateral connection, trial connection with various regional Internet systems to exploit many information systems).
b) Biological technology:
- Mastering cell technology, genetic technique, microbiological technology for the production of various kinds of enzymes, vaccines and antibiotics..., so as to create and multiply many plant and animal strains of high value, high yield and quality.
- Researching the technology for the production of microbiological fertilizers, biological products used for crop and animal tending and protection.
- Developing biological technologies for the preservation and processing of agricultural - forestry - aquatic products to maintain and increase the value of agricultural - forestry - aquatic products for domestic consumption and export.
- Researching the technology for the production of chemicals used for quick and accurate diagnosis of diseases, new vaccines and antiserums for the prevention and combat against dangerous tropical diseases.
- Researching technologies or groups of technologies for the treatment of urban wastes (garbage and waste water) and various kinds of discharges from the agricultural - forestry - aquatic products processing industry.
c) Materials technology:
Mastering and extensively applying composite materials, producing 90% of the needed firebrick and cold-storage materials. Substituting new materials for about 10-20% of traditional materials, markedly raising the efficiency of the use of materials.
- Renovating technology for the production of traditional materials, and at the same time developing some new and modern materials technologies capable of quick application to production;
- Developing technologies for the manufacture of polymeric materials, composite materials; rubber-based materials, plastics for industrial and civil use;
- Developing technologies for the manufacture of metal materials having special properties by modern technologies and methods; developing the technology for the manufacture of super-hard materials and cutters;
- Researching technology for the production of ceramic materials used for water and food filtering, and assorted technical ceramics; high-temperature fire-brick.
- Manufacturing electronic materials such as hard-magnetic and soft-magnetic materials, using photo-electronic and photon materials, initially manufacturing some kinds of electric, magnetic and biological sensors.
- Intensifying the research into spray-coating methods and technology for the manufacture of anti-corrosion materials and methods used in oceanic environment.
d) Automation:
In order to intensify the process of automation in the key processes of the production and service activities:
- Developing the computer-aid designing (CAD); establishing a number of powerful Auto-CAD designing centers capable of participating in projects involving international bidding.
- Extensively applying technologies of computerized numerical control (CNC), direct digital control (DDC), program logical control (PLC) in receiving, mastering the use of and renovating a number of equipment and equipment lines in some industries with high demand for development.
- Researching the manufacture of some SCADA systems for use in oil-gas industry, environmental or irrigation projects...
- Establishing a number of processing centers and CAM/CIM/PLC/CNC centers powerful enough to support the training and industrial application.
- Researching the trial manufacture of machines used in some dangerous production processes with serious environmental pollution.
4- Energy:
a) Drawing up the overall balance of the demands for various kinds of fuel and energy until the year 2000.
b) Researching the thesis and preparing scientific and technological preconditions for the construction of a nuclear electric power plant after the year 2000.
c) Working out plans on power supply in rural and mountainous areas.
d) Mastering the latest technologies in the construction of hydro- and thermo-electric power plants. Creating the capability for the design, construction and installation of power transmission lines of over 220 KV.
e) Researching technological solutions and equipment to serve as basis for the implementation of the policy on power economy: raising the use efficiency and reducing electric dissipation.
f) Synchronizing the technological renovation to meet the requirement of raising the output of coal mines in the period of 1996-2000.
5- Communication and transport:
Concentrating on the development of the communication and transport science and technology in service of the strategy and plan for communication and transport development to the year 2020; researching the mechanism of communication and transport management so as to contribute to accelerating the process of infrastructure construction, modernizing technology in the sectors of aviation, navigation, railway and expressway; researching the organization of container transport, transport of liquid, and bulk goods of large quantities.
Researching the selection of a plan for the development of urban communication and transport (especially in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City), communication and transport in the Mekong delta region; building main roads, airports, seaports of international standards and with modern technologies.
6- Construction:
Renovating the technology for the production of main construction materials so as to attain the average of the world's advanced standard by the year 2000; intensifying the mechanization of the project construction, and the wide application of informatics and automation to raise labor productivity and designed capacity.
Researching the process of urbanization and urban management, measures for rational labor distribution in the industrial, agricultural and service sectors...Working out a master plan for the population distribution along territorial lines to the year 2020 on the basis of the economic restructuring so as to carry forward the policy of national industrialization and modernization. Researching the plans for concentrated industrial zones.
7- Public health protection and improvement:
Researching basic bio-medical matters, environment and health. Researching the harmful impact of chemicals used in the production and toxic chemicals (especially Dioxin) on the environment and public health.
Researching the application of biological technology to the production of drugs (pharmaceuticals), and immunization technique to the search for a HIV treatment method; researching some kinds of common diseases in industrialized countries which have appeared in our country, researching pharmaceutical materials for production of drugs for treatment of malaria, goitre, inflammation, infection, etc. Researching the manufacture of modern medical instruments and equipment.
Researching and proposing the scientific and technological solutions to efficiently exploit the natural resources and favorable conditions and protect the ecological environment:
1. Establishing an environmental control system (comprising automatic observation and measurement network, environmental information network, tele-surveying centers); applying new technologies in natural resources survey, meteorological and hydrological forecast, forecast of natural calamities, environmental pollution control; applying new technologies to reduce pollution of coal dust, chemicals, industrial waste, especially for the protection of surface and underground water sources; Data processing methods and instruments, etc.
2. Researching technical solutions to the environmental pollution in industrial establishments in the cities and concentrated industrial zones.
3. Continuing the general territorial research and survey to serve the elaboration of regional development strategy; building a scientific basis for the territorial organization and zoning, rational arrangement of territorial space, population migration... in the industrialization process with an eye to eco-environmental protection.
4. Researching biological diversification in the areas with typical ecological systems.
Applying advanced technologies to the production, repair and maintenance of weapons and ammunition, military equipment and gear. Coordinating military and non-military forces in the survey and research so as to perform the task of territorial sovereignty protection...